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 كل ما تريد ان تعرفة عن :the human digestiv system

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مُساهمةموضوع: كل ما تريد ان تعرفة عن :the human digestiv system   الأربعاء 31 مارس 2010, 1:30 am

The human digestive system is a complex series of
organs and glands that processes food. In order to use the food we eat,
our body has to break the food down into smaller molecules that it can
process; it also has to excrete waste.

Most of the digestive
organs (like the stomach and intestines) are tube-like and contain the
food as it makes its way through the body. The digestive system is
essentially a long, twisting tube that runs from the mouth to the anus,
plus a few other organs (like the liver and pancreas) that produce or
store digestive chemicals.

The Digestive
Process
:

The start of the
process - the mouth:
The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food
is partly broken down by the process of chewing and by the chemical
action of salivary enzymes (these enzymes are produced by the salivary
glands and break down starches into smaller molecules).

On the way to the
stomach: the esophagus
- After being chewed and swallowed, the food
enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube that runs from the
mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements
(called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach.
This muscle movement gives us the ability to eat or drink even when
we're upside-down.

In the stomach -
The stomach is a large, sack-like organ that churns the food and bathes
it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in the stomach that is
partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme.

In the small
intestine
- After being in the stomach, food enters the duodenum,
the first part of the small intestine. It then enters the jejunum and
then the ileum (the final part of the small intestine). In the small
intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder),
pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner
wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.

In the large
intestine
- After passing through the small intestine, food passes
into the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and
electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food. Many
microbes (bacteria like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus,
Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the large intestine
help in the digestion process. The first part of the large intestine is
called the cecum (the appendix is connected to the cecum). Food then
travels upward in the ascending colon. The food travels across the
abdomen in the transverse colon, goes back down the other side of the
body in the descending colon, and then through the sigmoid colon.

The end of the
process
- Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is
excreted via the anus.

Digestive System
Glossary
:

anus - the
opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste)
exits the body.

appendix - a
small sac located on the cecum.

ascending colon -
the part of the large intestine that run upwards; it is located after
the cecum.

bile - a
digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall
bladder, and secreted into the small intestine.

cecum - the
first part of the large intestine; the appendix is connected to the
cecum.

chyme - food in
the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. Chyme
goes on to the small intestine for further digestion.

descending colon
- the part of the large intestine that run downwards after the
transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon.

duodenum - the
first part of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the
stomach to the jejunum.

epiglottis - the
flap at the back of the tongue that keeps chewed food from going down
the windpipe to the
lungs. When you swallow, the
epiglottis automatically closes. When you breathe, the epiglottis opens
so that air can go in and out of the windpipe.

esophagus - the
long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle
movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the
stomach.

gall bladder - a
small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases
bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the
small intestine.

ileum - the last
part of the small intestine before the large intestine begins.

jejunum - the
long, coiled mid-section of the small intestine; it is between the
duodenum and the ileum.

liver - a large
organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from
the blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood
proteins.

mouth - the
first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing
and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive
process (breaking down the food).

pancreas - an
enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the
intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of
carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine.

peristalsis -
rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the
throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary - you cannot control
it. It is also what allows you to eat and drink while upside-down.

rectum - the
lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they
are excreted.

salivary glands -
glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains
enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules.

sigmoid colon -
the part of the large intestine between the descending colon and the
rectum.

stomach - a
sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both
chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food
enters the stomach, it is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes.

transverse colon
- the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the
abdomen.


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كل ما تريد ان تعرفة عن :the human digestiv system   السبت 14 أغسطس 2010, 11:46 am

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